Gas phase reactions of small molecules

by B. P. Levitt

Publisher: Plenum Press in London, New York

Written in English
Cover of: Gas phase reactions of small molecules | B. P. Levitt
Published: Pages: 332 Downloads: 436
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Subjects:

  • Chemical kinetics.,
  • Gases.

Edition Notes

Includes bibliographies.

Statementedited by B. P. Levitt.
Classifications
LC ClassificationsQD501 .L65 vol. 1, QD502 .L65 vol. 1
The Physical Object
Paginationviii, 332 p.
Number of Pages332
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL5465355M
ISBN 100306350912
LC Control Number73168163

A method for constructing the potential energy surface for reactions of a molecule with the surface of cleaved non-conducting crystals is reported. The method uses systematic fragmentation to express the total potential in terms of potential energy surfaces which describe reactions of relatively small molecules in the gas by: The molecules will have a range of kinetic energies. Some of the liquid molecules may have enough energy to escape the intermolecular forces of the liquid into the gas phase. As more molecules enter the gas phase, some of them will begin re-entering the liquid phase as they loose energy to other gas molecules in collisions. His past work has also been concerned with understanding the dynamics of chemical reactions in the gas phase and in gas-surface collisions. In the field of chemical reaction dynamics, Schatz was one of the pioneers in the application of quantum scattering methods to determine the cross sections and rates of simple gas phase reactions such as H. This review summarizes recent literature describing the use of gas phase radical reactions for structural characterization of complex biomolecules other than peptides. Specifically, chemical derivatization, in-source chemical reaction, and gas phase ion/ion reactions have been demonstrated as effective ways to generate radical precursor ions that yield structural informative fragments Cited by: 3.

Gas Phase NMR for the Study of Chemical Reactions: Kinetics and Product Identification View Section, 5. 17 O and 33 S NMR Spectroscopy of Small Molecules in the Gas Phase. This book gives physical chemists a broader view of potential biological applications of their techniques for the study of nucleic acids in the gas phase. It provides organic chemists, biophysicists, and pharmacologists with an introduction to new techniques they can use to find the answers to yet.   The accurate prediction of absolute pK a values is often made using a thermodynamic cycle such as the one shown in Figure 1, although many variations have also been tested. 17, 20, 30 A key quantity in the cycle is the gas-phase basicity (GPB) that involves deprotonation of the species of interest in the gas-phase (ΔG gas in Figure 1).Cited by: The only gases that cannot be collected using this technique are those that readily dissolve in water (e.g., NH 3, H 2 S, and CO 2) and those that react rapidly with water (such as F 2 and NO 2).Remember, however, when calculating the amount of gas formed in the reaction, the gas collected inside the bottle is not pure. Instead, it is a mixture of the product gas and water vapor.

In gas-liquid chromatography, the mobile phase is a gas such as helium and the stationary phase is a high boiling point liquid adsorbed onto a solid. How fast a particular compound travels through the machine will depend on how much of its time is spent moving with the gas as opposed to being attached to the liquid in some way. Book Description. Understanding the molecular interactions responsible for chiral recognition is of primary importance in life chemistry. Gas-phase experiments on either neutral or ionic adducts of chiral molecules allow for the study of intrinsic properties of chiral recognition in solvent-free conditions. The solid phase consists of icy mantles frozen onto silicate or carbon dust grains (figure ), composed of H 2 O with an admixture of other species such as CO, CO 2, NH 3, CH 3 OH and CH 4, some formed in situ on the surface, some captured from the gas. In general, 'small' molecules (i.e. those containing fewer atoms) are far more abundant. The differences in the properties of a solid, liquid, or gas reflect the strengths of the attractive forces between the atoms, molecules, or ions that make up each phase. The phase in which a substance exists depends on the relative extents of its intermolecular forces (IMFs) and the kinetic energies (KE) of .

Gas phase reactions of small molecules by B. P. Levitt Download PDF EPUB FB2

The book Gas phase reactions of small molecules book together, for the first time, all aspects of reactions of metallic species in the gas phase and gives an up-to-date overview of the field.

Reactions covered include those of atomic, other free radical and transient neutral species, as well as ions. Additional Physical Format: Online version: Levitt, B.

(Bryan Philip), Gas phase reactions of small molecules. London, New York, Plenum Press, The chapters in this book are devoted to the elementary reactions of small molecules in the gas phase, with some emphasis on reactions important in combustion.

The first three chapters cover experimental measurements made at high temperatures, mainly using shock waves and flames; the final chapter. The kinetic investigation of the gas-phase reactions was carried out with undiluted CH 4 /O 2 mixtures ( Gas phase ion chemistry is a field of science encompassed within both chemistry and is the science that studies ions and molecules in the gas phase, most often enabled by some form of mass far the most important applications for this science is in studying the thermodynamics and kinetics of reactions.

For example, one application is in studying the thermodynamics of. Get this from a library. Physical Chemistry of Fast Reactions: Volume 1: Gas Phase Reactions of Small Molecules. [B P Levitt] -- 1 Unimolecular Dissociation of Small Molecules.- 2 Shock Tube Studies of the Hydrogen-Oxygen Reaction System.- 3 Chemical Reaction and Ionization in Flames.- 4 Reactions of Atoms and Free Radicals.

Bimolecular reactions A bimolecular reaction involves the collision of two reactants A and B to yield two products C and D. The collision produces an activated complex AB* which decomposes rapidly either to the original reactants A and B or to the products C and D.

The reaction is written. The chapters in this book are devoted to the elementary reactions of small molecules in the gas phase, with some emphasis on reactions important in combustion. The first three chapters cover experimental measurements made at high temperatures, mainly using shock waves and flames; the final chapter describes discharge flow methods near room.

Buy Physical Chemistry of Fast Reactions: Volume 1: Gas Phase Reactions Of Small Molecules Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. by B. Levitt (ISBN: ) from Amazon's Book Store. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Besides the emphasis on gas phase reactions, the author presents other relevant systems, such as chemistry in the bulk phase, under high pressure, and cold matrices.

The discussion of gas-phase chemistry of the noble gases covers neutral and ionic compounds, diatomic molecules, complexes with small molecules and metal compounds, up to large Author: Felice Grandinetti.

Use of computational chemistry to explain gas-phase phenomena. There is a constant series of papers that use computational chemistry to investigate gas-phase reactions or ionization processes in regard to thermochemistry and kinetics.

In some cases, this approach can lead to a better understanding of fragmentation by:   Association reactions of transition metal atoms with simple molecules near room temperature (S.A.

Mitchell). Reactions of gas phase transition metal atoms with small hydrocarbons (J.C. Weisshaar). The bonding in metal ion systems with multiple ligands (C.W.

Bauschlicher, Jr. and S.R. Langhoff). Book Edition: 1. seems to stop before all of the reactants are consumed can be explained with a model of chemical reactions known as the collision model assumes that ClNO 2 and NO molecules must collide before a chlorine atom can be transferred from one molecule to the other.

This assumption explains why the rate of the reaction is proportional to the concentration of both ClNO 2 and NO. De-protonation reactions. CH 3- + = By formula: CH 3- + H + = CH 4.Calculated photoionization cross sections relative experimental photoionization intensities for a selection of small molecules, J.

Chem. Phys.,61Gas-Phase Acidities Derived from Threshold Energies for Activated Reactions, J. Chem. Soc., 7. Gas‐Phase Ion Chemistry of Silicon‐Containing Molecules Ion–Molecule Reactions of Silicon‐containing Molecules Reactions of Transition‐metal Ions with Silicon‐containing Molecules.

Use of Silicon Compounds as Precursors for the Generation of Elusive Carbanions Author: Norman Goldberg, Helmut Schwarz.

Dissociation reactions are typically endothermic with positive entropy change, and are therefore spontaneous at high temperatures. Ultimately, all molecules decompose to their atoms at sufficiently high temperatures.

Endothermic reaction, ΔS. Investigating Ion-Molecule Reactions by Analyzing Neutral Products Formed in the Radiolysis and Photoionization of Hydrocarbons P.

AUSLOOS, S. LIAS, and A. SCALA Chap pp Journal Article: Temperature dependence of the gas phase reactions of CF[sub 3]O with CH[sub 4] and NO. @article{osti_, title = {Mechanisms of the reaction of unsaturated organic halides with small gas-phase vanadium clusters}, author = {Song, Li and Freitas, J E and El-Sayed, M A}, abstractNote = {Small gas-phase vanadium clusters synthesized in a molecular beam system by a laser vaporization technique are reacted with 1-bromopropene, 3-bromopropene, 3-chloropropene, and propene in a.

Phase also has a pronounced effect on the mobility of molecules. Molecules in the gas phase are quite free to move around, and they do so pretty quickly. On the other hand, they are pretty well spread out. Nevertheless, collisions in the gas phase happen pretty easily, which might help gas-phase reactions happen more readily.

As these gas phase molecules move randomly about, they will occasionally collide with the surface of the condensed phase, and in some cases, these collisions will result in the molecules re-entering the condensed phase. The change from the gas phase to the liquid is called : OpenStax.

A gas is one of the four most common states of a gas the molecules move freely and are independent of each other. This makes it different from a liquid where the molecules are loosely attached. It is also different from a solid where the bonds are strong and hold the molecules together.

In a pure gas, each molecule may be made of an individual atom. Gas phase reactions are those chemical reactions in which the reactant(s) as well as the product(s) are gaseous under the conditions in which the reaction is being carried out.

In a homogeneous gas phase reaction, all the reactants and all produc. Vapor pressure from the evaporated molecules forces some of the gas back into the liquid phase, and equilibrium is reached between evaporation and condensation kinetic molecular theory was developed in reference to ideal gases although it can be applied to real gases as well.

Special Issue in Molecules: 25th Anniversary of Molecules—Recent Advances in Materials Chemistry The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal Molecules are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publisher and the editor(s).

The modelling of complex gas phase reactions is discussed in terms both of models and data associated to the reactants, the reactions, the reactors, and of identification techniques. The description of the reacting mixture needs to use lumping techniques and composition-properties by: 1.

Institute of Physics, ELI Beamlines, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic Interests: lipid polymorphism, lipid cubic phases, non-lamellar lipid phases, lipid nanoparticles, protein crystallization, kinetics of crystal growth, kinetics of phase transitions, liquid crystals, time resolved X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS), X-ray powder diffraction, pump-probe and stop-flow kinetics.

The average speed of the molecules of a pure gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the molar mass of the gas molecules in isobaric and isothermic conditions; Thus, if the molecular weight of one gas is four times that of another, it would diffuse through a porous plug or escape through a small pinhole in a vessel at half the rate.

and collide continually, but gas phase reactions are difficult to contain and are sometimes dangerous. The particles in a liquid also move freely and quickly and have a high rate of collision, but very few pure substances are liquids at normal temperatures and pressures. Thus many important chemical reactions must take place in liquidFile Size: 4MB.

Photodissociation of Small Molecules in the Gas Phase Article in Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan 75(9) September with 23 Reads How we measure 'reads'. ZPE e ects and gas phase G at 15 K of possible reactions lead-ing to urea.

In particular we took into account three classes of reactions, ion-molecule, neutral-neutral, and radical reactions. Results are summarized in Table 1.

In Figure 1 we show the structures of reactants and products considered here (we omit-ted simple products like H, H 2, HCited by: 4.For this review, we selected five photocatalytic gas phase reactions, namely the reduction of CO2, water splitting, the oxidation of volatile organic compounds, the degrada-tion of nitrogen oxides.In the gas phase, the doubly-charged ions of small molecules (molecular dications) exhibit a wide range of reactivity following bimolecular collisions with neutral species.

This feature article presents an overview of what is known of this reactivity, and presents a detailed discussion of the dynamics of some of those reactions that involve.